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(精校版)2018年北京英语高考试题文档版(含答案).doc

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(精校版)2018年北京英语高考试题文档版(含答案).doc

绝密★启用前 2018 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英 语(北京卷)本试卷共14页,共120分。考试时长100分钟。考 生 务 必 将 答 案 答 在 答 题 卡 上 , 在 试 卷 上 作 答 无 效 。考 试 结 束 后 , 将 本 试 卷 和 答 题 卡 一 并 交 回 。 学 he’s had job 34 and all sorts," Mr. Anderson commented.For Mr. Smith, this is a possible life-changing 35 . The story once again tells us that one good turn deserves another.16. A. hope B. aim C. urge D. effort17. A. still B. even C. ever D. once18. A. wallet B. bag C. box D. parcel19. A. partner B. colleague C. owner D. policeman20. A. turned B. hid C. stepped D. reached21. A. discover B. collect C. check D. believe22. A. taking B. leaving C. reading D. writing23. A. satisfied B. excited C. amused D. shocked24. A. safe B. missing C. found D. seen25. A. service B. support C. kindness D. encouragement26. A. when B. if C. where D. because27. A. rather B. yet C. already D. just28. A. too B. though C. again D. instead29. A. honest B. polite C. rich D. generous30. A. gave B. paid C. cast D. drew31. A. learned B. posted C. cared D. heard32. A. borrow B. raise C. save D. earn33. A. of B. at C. for D. in34. A. details B. changes C. offers D. applications35. A. lesson B. adventure C. chance D. challenge第二部分阅读理解共两节, 40分第一节(共15小题;每小题2分,共30分)阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A 、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。AMy First Marathon( 马拉松)A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and this meant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I was determined to go ahead.I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn’t do either well. He later informed me that I was "not athletic".The idea that I was "not athletic" stuck with me for years. When I started running in my 30s, I realized running was a battle against myself, not about competition or whether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battle against my own body and mind. A test of willsThe night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn’t even find the finish line. I woke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something to myself.Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces鞋带 became untied. So I stopped to readjust. Not the start I wantedAt mile 3, I passed a sign "GO FOR IT, RUNNERS"By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly. Despite the pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.By mile 21, I was starvingAs I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is my biggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questioned my expenses on running.I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had. zxxkDetermined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels世俗标签, I can now call myself a "marathon winner".36. A month before the marathon, the author ____________.A. was well trained B. felt scared C. made up his mind to run D. lost hope37. Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th yearA. To acknowledge the support of his teacher.B. To amuse the readers with a funny story.C. To show he was not talented in sports.D. To share a precious memory.38. How was the author’s first marathonA. He made it. B. He quit halfway.C. He got the first prize. D. He walked to the end.39. What does the story mainly tell usA. A man owes his success to his family support.B. A winner is one with a great effort of will.C. Failure is the mother of success.D. One is never too old to learn. BFind Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation航空 CenterIf you’re looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center SAC is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challenge and inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun.More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment in engineering, aviation, education, medicine and a wide variety of other professions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be an astronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for what they’re studying in the classroom.For the trainees, the programs also offer a great way to earn merit badges荣誉徽章. At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated模拟 flying to space with the crew from all over the world. The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviation badge. They learn the principles of flight and test their operating skills in the cockpit驾驶舱学 *科网 of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees also get a good start on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water- and land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of "downed" pilot.With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task.All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy the experience together, too, with Family Camp programs for families with children as young as 7.Stay an hour or stay a week there is something here for everyoneFor more details, please visit us online at www.oursac.com.40. Why do people come to SACA. To experience adventures.B. To look for jobs in aviation.C. To get a degree in engineering.D. To learn more about medicine.41. To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to .A. fly to spaceB. get an Aviation badge firstC. study the principles of flightD. build and fire model rockets42. What is the most important for traineesA. Leadership. B. Team spirit.C. Task planning. D. Survival skills.CPlastic-Eating WormsHumans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills垃圾填埋场, and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms. Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40 of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3 of it. To confirm that the worms’ chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste糊状物学科.网 and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13 of their mass apparently broken down by enzymes 酶 from the worms’ stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017.Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food beeswax also allows them to break down plastic. "Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, "she explains, "The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond. "Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes肠道微生物Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team’s findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic."43. What can we learn about the worms in the studyA. They take plastics as their everyday food.B. They are newly evolved creatures.C. They can consume plastics.D. They wind up in landfills.44. According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to .A. identify other means of the breakdownB. find out the source of the enzymeC. confirm the research findingsD. increase the breakdown speed45. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might .A. help to raise wormsB. help make plastic bagsC. be used to clean the oceansD. be produced in factories in future46. What is the main purpose of the passageA. To explain a study method on worms.B. To introduce the diet of a special worm.C. To present a way to break down plastics.D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance.DPreparing Cities for Robot CarsThe possibility of self-driving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist’s dream, years away from materializing in the real world. Well, the future is apparently now. The California Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companies to test truly self-driving cars on public roads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out self-driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. California, it should be noted, isn’t leading the way here. Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. It’s hard to predict when driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless carsand rightfully so, policymakers also should be talking about how self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions排放 and offer more convenient, affordable mobility options. The arrival of driverless vehicles is a chance to make sure that those vehicles are environmentally friendly and more shared.Do we want to copy or even worsen the traffic of today with driverless cars Imagine a future where most adults own individual self-driving vehicles. They tolerate long, slow journeys to and from work on packed highways because they can work, entertain themselves or sleep on the ride, which encourages urban spread. They take their driverless car to an appointment and set the empty vehicle to circle the building to avoid paying for parking. Instead of walking a few blocks to pick up a child or the dry cleaning, they send the self-driving minibus. The convenience even leads fewer people to take public transport an unwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride-hailing叫车 services.A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80 and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure基础设施 and operations 40 by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues责任与维护问题. But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.Policymakers should start thinking now about how to make sure the appearance of driverless vehicles doesn’t extend the worst aspects of the car-controlled transportation system we have today. The coming technological advancement presents a chance for cities and states to develop transportation systems designed to move more people, and more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.47. According to the author, attention should be paid to how driverless cars can __________.A. help deal with transportation-related problemsB. provide better services to customersC. cause damage to our environmentD. make some people lose jobs48. As for driverless cars, what is the author’s major concernA. Safety. B. Side effects.C. Affordability. D. Management.49. What does the underlined word "fielded " in Paragraph 4 probably meanA. Employed. B. Replaced.C. Shared. D. Reduced.50. What is the author’s attitude to the future of self-driving carsA. Doubtful. B. Positive.C. Disapproving. D. Sympathetic.第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,共10分)根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。Why Do We Get AngryAnger seems simple when we are feeling it, but the causes of anger are various. Knowing these causes can make us examine our behavior, and correct bad habits. The main reasons we get angry are triggering(触发)events, personality traits(特征), and our assessment of situations. 51 Triggering events for anger are so many that to describe them all would take hundreds of pages. However, here are some examples being cut off in traffic, a deadline approaching, experiencing physical pain, and much more. ____52____ The reason why someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one’s personal history and psychological traits. zxxkEach person, no matter who they are, has psychological imbalances. People who have personality traits that connect with competitiveness and low upset tolerance are much more likely to get angry. 53 Also, sometimes pre-anger does not have to do with a lasting condition, but rather a temporary state before a triggering event has occurred.54 Sometimes even routine occurrences become sources of pre-anger, or anger itself. Sometimes ignorance and negative 消极的 outlooks on situations can create anger.55 However, anger can easily turn violent, and it is best to know the reasons for anger to appear in order to prevent its presence. With these main reasons in mind, we can evaluate our level of anger throughout the day and prevent cases of outbursts by comprehending the reasons for our feelings.A. Our attitude and viewpoint on situations can create anger within us as well.B. But some types of situations can help us to get rid of the occurrence of anger.C. Anger is rarely looked upon as a beneficial character trait, and is usually advised to reduce it.D. Anger is a particularly strong feeling and maybe people think that they have reasons to feel angry.E. Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where anger is in the background of your mind.F. Understanding these reasons will control our own anger if we are willing to evaluate ourselves with a critical eye.G. Not everyone acts the same in response to events, and that is why what triggers one person may or may not trigger another.zxxk第三部分书面表达共两节, 35分第一节 15分假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,你的英国朋友Jim在给你的邮件中提到他对中国文化感兴趣,计划明年来北京上大学。他向你咨询相关信息。请给他回邮件,内容包括1. 表示欢迎;2. 推荐他上哪所大学;3. 建议他做哪些准备工作。注意1. 词数不少于50;2. 开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

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